Category Archives: 12th Century

Pope Calixtus II (r. 1119-1124)

Calixtus II (also spelled Callistus), played an instrumental role in the recovery of the papacy from the concessions made to the Holy Roman Empire by his twice-removed predecessor, Paschal II (r. 1099-1118). Paschal’s solution to the Investiture Contest had apparently … Continue reading

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Martin Luther: “Bernardus Redivivus”

In the opening paragraph of his essay for a 1992 conference on Bernard of Clairvaux Franz Posset provocatively says that “‘By remote control’, so to speak, Saint Bernard guides Luther’s thoughts across the centuries.” Indeed, “Saint Bernard is quoted or … Continue reading

Posted in 12th Century, 16th Century, Ecumenism | 2 Comments

Bernard of Clairvaux: A Forerunner of John Calvin?

This is the question that A.N.S. Lane explores in his contribution to a 1992 scholarly conference on Bernard of Clairvaux.:”(Bernardus Magister: Papers Presented at the Nonacentenary Celebration of the Birth of Saint Bernard of Clairvauxed, John R. Sommerfeldt [Spencer, MA: … Continue reading

Posted in 12th Century, 16th Century, Ecumenism | 1 Comment

Moment of Transition

Monika Otter’s article “1066: The Moment of Transition in Two Narratives of the Norman Conquest”:”(Speculum, Vol. 74, No. 3. (Jul., 1999), pp. 565-586.)”: explores the question of how Medieval historians dealt with novelty and change. Otter writes of “the widely … Continue reading

Posted in 11th Century, 12th Century, Writing History | Leave a comment

“Foreign Patrimony”

William of Malmesbury has an interesting take on the common Medieval practice of spicing up Saints’ Lives with effusive praise modeled after ancient canons of rhetoric: “…anyone who tries to exalt verbally what is in itself of great importance wastes … Continue reading

Posted in 12th Century, De Rhetorica, Writing History | Leave a comment

Pope Calixtus II (r. 1119-1124)

Calixtus II (also spelled Callistus), played an instrumental role in the recovery of the papacy from the concessions made to the Holy Roman Empire by his twice-removed predecessor, Paschal II (r. 1099-1118). Paschal’s solution to the Investiture Contest had apparently … Continue reading

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“Like Dwarfs Standing on the Shoulders of Giants”: Static Vs. Dynamic Concepts of “Tradition” in the Twelfth Century

“Like dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants…” So wrote Bernard of Chartres in the twelfth century, giving a good summary of the innovative approach to Scripture that shook exegesis in that period. The reformation of the eleventh century had … Continue reading

Posted in 12th Century, Scripture and Tradition | Leave a comment

The Mixed Legacy of Gratian of Bologna Concerning the Governance of the Church

Since I took the first draft of my senior thesis for New St. Andrews College down some months back pending revisions based on comments from my thesis advisors, the largest and most developed part of my historical arguments regarding conciliar … Continue reading

Posted in 12th Century, Conciliar Theory & Practice | Leave a comment